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Global Self-Esteem Across the Lifespan

Abstract
This study provides a comprehensive picture of age differences in self-esteem from age 9 to 90 years
using cross-sectional data collected from 326,641 individuals over the Internet. Self-esteem levels were
high in childhood, dropped during adolescence, rose gradually throughout adulthood, and declined
sharply in old age. This trajectory generally held across gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and
nationality (U.S. citizens vs. non-U.S. citizens). Overall, these findings support previous research, help
clarify inconsistencies in the literature, and document new trends that require further investigation.
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Dr. Kali Trzesniewski,
Nov 9, 2011, 1:05 PM
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